American Civil War
Background of Civil War
In the mid-19th century, while the US was experiencing tremendous growth with expansion towards west, economical and industrial changes taking place. In the meantime, a fundamental economic difference existed between country northern and southern regions. Various sections of the country were divided by different economies and different ways of life. This gave rise to serious differences of opinion about the proper role of the nation and the states. After decades of growing tensions between northern and southern areas led to the decision of session of southern states from the north . The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was a final shot to the decision and caused 7 southern states to secede from the confederate states of America. These tensions afterward led to the outbreak of a deadliest civil war in 1861.
Causes of the Civil war of America
American civil war began in April 1861 when Lincoln took the office. The South’s immediate secession after Lincoln’s inauguration was mainly due to build up hatred for North. Because the North was supportive of Lincoln as he belonged to the Republican Party, the South basically had a conceptual image of him as one who would be against the South.
The primary reason for the secession of South from the Union was that the South felt that they were lagging behind in the industrial revolution that was taking place in America. In north manufactories and industries were well established while in South large scale farms were present that were heavily dependent on slaves for crops especially cotton and tobacco. The issue of slavery increased these disagreements. Slavery was banned in many places, especially in the west, but slavery was still going on in the south. One prominent issue was that the north wasn’t in support of slavery and the south wanted slavery to be allowed everywhere. Growing abolishment in the north after the 1830 and northern opposition to slavery extension into the new western territories led southern fear that slavery would end and the backbone of the economy of America which is farming is in danger. Due to slavery, the clear discrimination of race was felt by southern. The South also felt that they were losing their power and influence in the country.
The North also was in control of the new railroads which were expanding across the nation, north practically dominated the manufacturing business and so everything that the South used came from the North and southern felt unwillingly dependent on the South. Hence, causes leading to the American civil war were:
- Election of Lincoln
- Discrimination of race
- The difference in Economy of north and south
- Western Expansion (North did not want to take slavery to the West)
The Confederate States in the American Civil War
There were 11 confederate states of America that left the United States and conducted a major war back in 1861:
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
Border states in the American Civil war
The slave states that rejected leaving union at the time of war and remained in the Union are:
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri and West Virginia
The outbreak of the American Civil war (1861)
When Lincoln took the office in March 1861, the Confederate forces threatened the federal held “Fort Summer”, South Carolina. Confederate artillery fired the first shots of civil war on April 12, Lincoln ordered a fleet to resupply Sumter. Sumter’s commander surrendered after less than 2 days of bombardment. Four more southern states joined the confederacy after Fort Summer, Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland didn’t secede Union but had sympathy for confederate.
When the war began (1865-1865), President Abraham Lincoln carefully framed the conflict as concerning the preservation of union rather than the abolition of slavery. Although he personally found the practice of slavery abhorrent, he knew that neither Northern not the residents of the border slave states would support abolition as a war aim, but in mid-1862, thousands of slaves fled to join the invading armies. Lincoln was convinced that abolition had become a sound military strategy as well as a morally correct path. On September 2, soon after the Union victory at Antietam, he issued the preliminary emancipation proclamation. Declaring that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves in the rebellious states shall be then thenceforward and forever free. While the emancipation did not free a single slave yet proved to be a tiny part in transforming the fight of preventing the nation into freedom.
Ending of civil war
American Civil war held from April 12, 1861, to May 13, 1865, lasted for 4 years and involved 10th largest US combat force participation. War ended when Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant (Union general during the American Civil War) on April 9, 1865.
Deaths and cost of Civil war
It is said to be the deadliest and costliest civil war with 620,000 out of 2.4 million soldiers killed and $15 million war cost.