Artificial Intelligence (AI): Transforming World
Artificial intelligence is no about an exciting and most worked upon field nowadays. From SIRI to self-driving cars are all the fruits of works in AI. Though God-given human intelligence is far beyond what we can actually replicate into the machines, however, a lot of progress has been done in achieving this level of artificial intelligence and to replicate few elements of human intellectual intelligence. Let’s see what Artificial intelligence is and how it is changing the world?
History of AI
It is generally believed that Artificial intelligence is something innovative and advance. Well, the concept is not new as the implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) goes back in history. Under Greek mythology, the concept of machines and mechanical men were well thought of. One such example is of Talos that was a giant animated bronze warrior that was thought to program to guard the island of Crete. So, it was based on this very concept of Artificial Intelligence. However, the foundation of the concept was laid in the 19th century when Alan Turing published a paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines that think. He proposed a Turing test that was meant to identify whether a computer can work or think intelligently like a human being. Though until today we haven’t made a machine that can fully pass the Turing test.
What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science and engineering that is dedicated to making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.
Intelligence Vs Artificial Intelligence
Well, now you know what is Artificial Intelligence but what is that makes Intelligence different from artificial intelligence. Here it is, Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals, and some machines. But when this intelligence is artificially developed in the machines using algorithm s and programs, so that they can perform tasks like humans beings.
It’s been easier to mechanize many of the high-level cognitive tasks we usually associate with “intelligence” in people e. g., symbolic integration, proving theorems, playing chess, some aspect of medical diagnosis, etc. However, It’s very hard to mechanize tasks that animals can do easily like walking around without running into things, catching prey and avoiding predators, interpreting complex sensory information (visual, aural ), modeling the internal states of other animals from their behavior, working as a team (ants, bees). These hard to mechanize tasks are basically the part of AI. According to Psychologists, human intelligence is not just one trait instead it is the combination of many diverse abilities. Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components of intelligence: learning, reasoning, perception, problem handling and using language.
How Machines are made artificially intelligent?
As we know that computers have the ability to solve simple problems using the data stored in them already. The basic idea behind it is simple that the computers gather information about the situation using sensors and compare the information gathered to stored data and decides what the information signifies. After comparing the problem, it takes action as it is provided in computer programming. Computers don’t have any general analytical ability to do so, instead, all the computers are programmed to perform certain actions. Modern computers have the ability to learn as well.
Robots/ Machine Learning
A subdivision of Artificial Intelligence is Machine Learning that researches how robots can learn to perform certain tasks from past experience. In simple words, it gives machines the ability to learn as we humans do. There are different forms of learning that can be implemented in AI. The simple is learning by trial and error method e.g. computer is given a program to solve an equation. It randomly does some moves to solve that equation until the answer comes right. The computer will then store that solution and steps in a certain position, so next time when the computer faces the same situation it can solve it correctly. The challenging method is “Generalization”. Like if the same equation is given again to that computer with a slight change in it. The computer will not be able to solve it. However, in generalization, the computer will adapt to the slight change in the problem equation and solve the equation correctly. This generalization makes the computer store some extra information regarding the problem as well. This is basically done through statics and numbers using algorithms.
Harmful aspects of Artificial Intelligence
The concept that there would be machines and robots in the future that will behave like humans was merely a science fiction a few years ago. But thanks to recent innovations in technology all the things considered impossible in AI are coming to reality one by one. There is no doubt that Artificial Intelligence is an incredible advancement in technology but along with pros, there are few harmful aspects associated with AI as well. Many people think that more advancement in artificial intelligence can impact the job market by replacing humans with robots and making people lose their jobs.
Even though AI is making machines replicate human behavior to a great extent, still they are not capable to exhibit emotions like love, hate, revenge, etc. These machines and robots are developed to act only according to how they are programmed. So, what if the machines are programmed to do something devastating. The autonomous weapons that are programmed to kill, if placed in the wrong hands can be extremely dangerous for humans.
Computers are made to act on the commands and they don’t care or think about what they have to go through to fulfill that command. Sounds odd? Here is the example, if you ask an autonomous car to take you to the airport quickly because you are getting late. The car will make sure you reach the required destination as commanded in the required time, not caring about the fact that it broke all the traffic rules and made you super uncomfortable due to the high speed of the car.
Another aspect of the great threat is that computers, robots, machines made on the purpose of artificial intelligence involving programming and coding that can be highly disastrous even if a minor mistake or loophole remains left.
In any case, Artificial Intelligence will certainly play a larger role in our daily lives in the future. In the coming decades, robots will gradually move out of the industrial and scientific worlds and into daily life, in the same way as the computers were spread to the home in the 1980s. Let’s hope for the best and make the most out of this technology advancement.